I occasionally have a need to convert my iPhone HEIC images to JPEG. Previously, I only needed to convert a couple of images at a time. I accomplished that through Preview on my iMac, one image at a time. After attending a winter wedding, I wanted to convert 54 images from HEIC to JPEG. I came across a How-To Geek article, explaining how to use Automator on my iMac for this task; I had results for my 54 images in less than a minute.
The need identified
The newlyweds set up a share site and asked various attendees to upload their photos to the site so that the couple would have access to them in one location. After culling my images from two events, I was ready to upload them…or so I thought.
The site selected by the couple didn’t support HEIC format. My largest group of images was 54, and I didn’t want to use my Preview approach to save each image as a JPEG. A quick search yielded this How-To Geek approach using the Automator application on my iMac.
It took me five minutes to read the article, open Automator, build the Quick Action as described, and achieve my desired result.
Modifying the Quick Action
As the How-To Geek article mentions, a Quick Action can be saved and reused. The one change I needed to make was to change the To: folder to a generic “HEIC to JPEG” folder on my desktop so that when I ran the Action next time, the resulting JPEG images would be placed in a generic folder. (I wouldn’t always want my JPEG images in the Alex-Ally wedding folder.)
First I created the “HEIC to JPEG” folder on my Desktop. Then, I edited the Quick Action:
I will make it a practice to immediately move, upload, or otherwise act on the images in this folder and then promptly delete them from the folder so that it is always empty, ready for the next conversion.
Finding a simple solution that was quick to implement and can easily be used again (I just need to remember to right-click) gave me the same sense of relief felt by these two ladies at the conclusion of the reception.
The transfer of 21 Hi8 tapes to a digital format took 28 hours; splitting the resulting files into 452 edited movies required months of detail work. Is it worth it? I believe so, since the end result is the way we store and consume videos today: we don’t have a series of unrelated events in a single file that is one or two hours long; rather, we have a number of separate video files that we can view individually or combine in a creative way if we choose. Fortunately, the way we consume video in the second decade of the twenty-first century provides us with much more control than was afforded us in decades past. It is simply more practical to share clips from old tapes than it is to share a digital file of the entire tape.
In a previous post, I discussed the benefits of breaking videos that are hours long into individual clips. I still believe that a first step should be to capture the videos in their entirety, if your only copies are on tape. Tape degrades over time, so preserving your memories in a digital format is something you should tackle immediately. The upper end of the life span for tape is 20 years. Some of the tapes I recently worked with were older than that (1990 – 2011), and they were in fine shape, but yours may not be. Don’t tempt fate if the only copy you have is still on tape.
Transferring using Vidbox
I discovered the Vidbox device a few years ago. I have used it with a VCR and with two different camcorders, with S-Video, RCA cables, and camera-specific cables. I did experience problems with a continuous feed when using the S-Video, which I solved by avoiding all USB hubs and power strips and disconnecting unnecessary devices. Power was not an issue when using just camera-specific or RCA cables.
There are demonstrations of Vidbox available, and all were positive; I can add my experience to that list. I have now transferred over 30 tapes with the device. It connects to your computer via USB and then to either a VCR or a camcorder using the appropriate cables. The instructions on screen are clear, and if you encounter issues (as I did with the S-Video), then Vidbox support is available by phone.
Another option is to have the tapes transferred by a local camera shop, a photo organizer, or a national company. If you use one of these approaches, be clear regarding what file format will be delivered to you, whether you will be able to edit the files, and what media will be used (USB, EHD, DVD, etc.) for delivery.
The client did not know how much footage was on the 21 tapes. As shown in the chart below, eight tapes had about two hours of material, nine had about one hour, and the remainder had a half hour or less. The total number of hours for all tapes was just under 28.
Creating and editing clips
I used iMovie 10.1.9 to separate hours-long video into separate clips. Consider a hypothetical one-hour tape that includes Christmas, an indoor birthday, and swimming at an outdoor pool. I begin by selecting all of the Christmas footage and copying it into the iMovie project pane. Then I watch the footage and observe breaks in the filming. I separate the footage and add transitions for each of these breaks (Cross Dissolve is my favorite transition). The Christmas movie might end up having four different clips (opening presents, cooking in the kitchen, eating dessert, playing with toys), with transitions between them. The indoor birthday movie might have ten different clips. The outdoor pool movie might have just a single clip.
Auto color balance
A number of the clips benefitted from auto color balance, which was part of my base rate. Examples of video that improved after auto color balance included: indoor basketball games (above), some outdoor swim pool shots, and events in the kitchen. Generally speaking, outdoor shots with grass did not improve with auto color balance (e.g., soccer games, Easter egg hunts). I found that whether auto color balance would improve a clip or not depended on the direction of the light source relative to the camera, use of a camera light while filming, and the source of light being natural or artificial.
Auto color balance improved this footage from a preschool pumpkin-carving video; the yellow tint was removed.
It also improved this footage of father and child at an outdoor swim pool by removing the unnatural shade of blue.
This footage from a neighborhood Halloween parade did not benefit from auto color balance, since it was filmed outside.
I always apply auto color balance to the individual clips within a project. As the videographer was shooting and possibly changing position, the light may have shifted. While one clip benefits from adjustment, a different clip may actually look worse. Although it can be tedious to apply to each clip and view the impact, I highly recommend it; one size does not fit all.
Manual color correction options (versus auto) are available in iMovie, but that level of adjustment was not within the scope of this particular project.
Determining dates of clips
If cases and/or tapes are dated
For this collection of 21 tapes, some cases were dated with years and a brief description of contents (eight cases were not labeled at all):
Beginning 10/7/93 End Myrtle B. 1994
The tapes themselves were not labeled, so I had to be aware that if a tape had been placed into the wrong case, then the case label might not be appropriate for the tape inside of it. I made a note of each case label as I began to work on that particular tape, as it was my first indication of what might be on the associated tape.
If the video itself is dated
The case labels were a starting point. Dates recorded using the camcorder proved to be very reliable, when they were available. The camcorder manual explained how to view the date while playing the tape (it could be toggled on and off). While capturing the footage using Vidbox, I made sure to toggle the date and timestamp off. While editing the clips, I would replay the tape in the camcorder, toggle the date and timestamp on, and use it to date the clips. The camcorder date and timestamp were not always available, even on a single tape (i.e., it would be available for some footage but not for all footage). I utilized it whenever I could.
If neither of the above are available or reliable
There is always a bit of detective work associated with dating of tapes and clips. The client provided me with some key dates (anniversary, birthdays, baptism, etc.) If you cannot determine the date for a particular event, continue working with other material that follows on the same tape. If you ultimately determine the date of events before and after an event in question, the two known dates can at least sandwich the unknown one. In many cases, I ended up labeling with seasons if months could not be determined. There is a caveat to this approach, however. In a few instances, I could tell that an event was out of order on the tape. Perhaps something was accidentally recorded over (someone grabbed the wrong tape), or perhaps the intent was to record over something that was no longer needed. You cannot always rely on the order of items on the tapes themselves. Consider the age of individuals in the footage and the season to help you determine if something is out of order or not.
Information can also be gathered from the video and/or audio. This does require taking time to watch and listen to the recording so that you can identify any clues. Below are a few examples of dating clips using clues within the audio and video:
July 4, 1990: reference to July 4 (Independence Day) in the audio, and I was confident of the year.
Sunday, September 2, 1990: audio reference to Sunday night; this clip followed Labor Day weekend clips (known from audio). I was confident that the year was 1990, so I could determine the dates of Labor Day weekend that year.
October 20,1990; Notre Dame score was 29 to 20 (on audio); they played Miami on that date with that score. This date also matches the newspaper headline in the video – Oakland As and Cincinnati Reds in World Series (those dates were October 16-20, 1990).
Friday, April 1, 1994: I was confident of the year, and there was mention of it being Good Friday on the audio.
January 7, 1996: date was available from local newspaper coverage of a blizzard on this date; it was revisited by the newspaper 20 years later in 2016.
Most of the examples above were audio clues (except for the newspaper headline). An example of a video clue was this brochure from a piano recital (a bit hard to read: June 4, 2000).
Both children in the family participated in springboard diving during the summer months. I was unfamiliar with this sport and the associated terminology, which made dividing the clips and naming the movies challenging. I didn’t know how many dives were performed at a particular meet, whether the kids alternated or not, and what “DD” meant (announced as each diver stepped onto the board).
I learned to use background imagery to help determine if diving clips had been filmed on the same day or not. The umbrellas at the tables, where the dives were positioned relative to other structures (buildings), and the attire of spectators and coaches all helped me to determine if what I was viewing was a different dive meet than prior footage.
The site USAdiver.com had a table that helped me decipher the terminology used when the divers were announced. Each dive had a number (101), a letter (A, B, C), a description (back dive straight), and a degree of difficulty (DD = 1.7). Having access to this information enabled me to label the movies with more accuracy and to add appropriate titles.
I used an iMac for this project, so Vidbox Video Conversion for Mac provided me with .MOV files. After creating and editing the clips in iMovie, I researched export options. I ultimately chose Quality: ProRes. The higher the quality and resolution, the larger the file size. There is debate as to whether ProRes is “overkill” for video shot in the 1980s and 1990s. However, the goal here was to enable preservation of these videos/clips for the long term (i.e., decades). There is general agreement that ProRes is a format that is likely to enable future editing (the larger file size means there is a lot of data retained) and easier migration to new file formats when the time arises. Since ProRes files are large, individual movies can always be further compressed if smaller files are needed in specific circumstances.
Vimeo’s blog post was helpful as I considered archival needs, and this Video Compression Guide points out that further compression is always possible if you retain a higher quality master version.
Don’t forget the Memory Stick
This particular camcorder had a Sony Memory Stick. It was similar to an SD card, but longer. I set it aside while I focused on the tapes. Fortunately, I made a note to remember to check it before wrapping up the project. I truly did not expect to find any material on it.
The camcorder manual, which the client still had, provided information on how to view the Memory Stick contents using the camcorder. About 20 images were templates of some sort, but then still images began to appear. There were ultimately 33 of them. I wasn’t sure if the client would want to save these images or not, or what quality they would be (the manual specified they were JPG, but not what resolution). I knew she had invested in a good camera and had used it at the same events where the camcorder was present. I wondered if these still images might already be reflected in her print or digital photo collection. I used my iPhone to film the images as they played on the camcorder. I shared the resulting video with the client, and she confirmed that she wanted to retain the still images.
I found out the Sony Memory Stick was proprietary technology. Sony customer service was helpful and directed me to Best Buy for a device that could read a Memory Stick. There were a couple of devices with widely varying price points. The less expensive one was out of stock, but I found a comparable device elsewhere. The client was agreeable to spending the $24 needed for the device to access the Memory Stick, so those 33 images were copied to a CD and an EHD for her use.
I give credit to the parents, the videographers in this family. They still had the camcorder, cords, and manual. The tapes were in good condition, with some labeling. Often, audio had been used to record the relevance of the event being filmed. There was not a lot of wasted tape between events filmed. Occasionally, the camera had been left running, capturing grass, the lens cap, or a counter – but there was only a handful of situations like that. Overall, the video was easy to work with and decipher.
I shared a selected number of movies with the client via Vimeo as I progressed through the project, so I received some early reactions to the work product. I am anxious to hear from the family as to which events surprised and moved them the most, upon viewing all of them for the first time in a decade or more.
“I love these!!! Thank you SO much! I am so grateful that we are preserving these diving memories. The middle school birthday party is HILARIOUS…and slightly painful to watch, haha. I was, in fact, a teenager once.…”
~Maria M. in Richmond, VA (July 17, 2017)
“I was able to view the videos and was delighted with them. Thanks so much for doing such outstanding work!”
Rebecca M. in Richmond, VA (May 1, 2018)
ALL IMAGES ARE USED WITH PERMISSION FROM THE CLIENT.
Depending on the challenges encountered, digital photo organizing may involve the evaluation of thousands of photos for a variety of reasons. There are apps and software to assist with various parts of the process, enabling you to navigate around the roadblocks you will face. Preserve the original file structure for reference, and then apply a systematic process to a copy of the original files.
I recently worked with a client who has enjoyed creating scrapbooks for years.She continues to make scrapbooks in this digital age.How can digitization supplement and support such efforts?There are steps to take, before scrapbook creation and after, that will help preserve both individual images and the stories that scrapbook pages are designed to tell.
Is video part of your vacation memories toolbox? I advocate for video as a supplement to online photo galleries, photo books, and printed photos.The ability to capture voices, antics, and movement is unique to the video format. With some basic training to help you efficiently navigate iMovie, you’ll find it is easy to create a comprehensive video story from a series of clips, taken on a variety of devices.You can add audio (music or specific sounds), transitions, titles, and credits.Splitting clips and editing out unwanted content is straightforward.
We used to have just one camera on our vacations; all images on one device, in the order taken. Not anymore. We used three devices on our trip in August. The two iPhones adjusted automatically from Eastern Daylight Time to Mountain Daylight Time. The camera required a manual adjustment, which I did not consider until a couple of days into the trip. Continue reading →
The Association of Personal Photo Organizers (APPO) recently shared this radio conversation about digital preservation from St. Louis Public Radio. The conversation is 30 minutes long and includes input from librarians, archivists and digital media managers; there is an accompanying article that addresses the highlights. Continue reading →
If you are digitizing old media (Hi8, VHS, and VHS-C tapes), take the opportunity to separate unrelated clips that were previously stored on a single tape or cassette. Digitization is also the ideal time to document, improve audio and color, and remove irrelevant footage.
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